您现在的位置是:首页 > 文章详情

Spark Parquet file split

日期:2018-10-22点击:418

在实际使用 spark + parquet 的时候, 遇到了两个不解的地方:

  1. 我们只有一个 parquet 文件(小于 hdfs block size), 但是 spark 在某个 stage 生成了4个 tasks 来处理.
  2. 4个 tasks 中只有一个 task 处理了所有数据, 其他几个都没有处理数据.

这两个问题牵涉到对于 parquet spark 是如何来进行切分 partitions, 以及每个 partition 要处理哪部分数据的.

先说结论, spark 中, parquet 是 splitable 的, 代码见ParquetFileFormat#isSplitable. 那会不会把数据切碎? 答案是不会, 因为是以 spark row group 为最小单位切分 parquet 的, 这也会导致一些 partitions 会没有数据, 极端情况下, 只有一个 row group 的话, partitions 再多, 也只会一个有数据.

接下来开始我们的源码之旅:

处理流程

1. 根据 parquet 按文件大小切块生成 partitions:

FileSourceScanExec#createNonBucketedReadRDD 中, 如果文件是 splitable 的, 会按照 maxSplitBytes 把文件切分, 最后生成的数量, 就是 RDD partition 的数量, 这个解释了不解1, 代码如下:

val maxSplitBytes = Math.min(defaultMaxSplitBytes, Math.max(openCostInBytes, bytesPerCore)) logInfo(s"Planning scan with bin packing, max size: $maxSplitBytes bytes, " + s"open cost is considered as scanning $openCostInBytes bytes.") val splitFiles = selectedPartitions.flatMap { partition => partition.files.flatMap { file => val blockLocations = getBlockLocations(file) if (fsRelation.fileFormat.isSplitable( fsRelation.sparkSession, fsRelation.options, file.getPath)) { (0L until file.getLen by maxSplitBytes).map { offset => val remaining = file.getLen - offset val size = if (remaining > maxSplitBytes) maxSplitBytes else remaining val hosts = getBlockHosts(blockLocations, offset, size) PartitionedFile( partition.values, file.getPath.toUri.toString, offset, size, hosts) } } else { val hosts = getBlockHosts(blockLocations, 0, file.getLen) Seq(PartitionedFile( partition.values, file.getPath.toUri.toString, 0, file.getLen, hosts)) } } }.toArray.sortBy(_.length)(implicitly[Ordering[Long]].reverse) val partitions = new ArrayBuffer[FilePartition] val currentFiles = new ArrayBuffer[PartitionedFile] var currentSize = 0L /** Close the current partition and move to the next. */ def closePartition(): Unit = { if (currentFiles.nonEmpty) { val newPartition = FilePartition( partitions.size, currentFiles.toArray.toSeq) // Copy to a new Array. partitions += newPartition } currentFiles.clear() currentSize = 0 } // Assign files to partitions using "First Fit Decreasing" (FFD) splitFiles.foreach { file => if (currentSize + file.length > maxSplitBytes) { closePartition() } // Add the given file to the current partition. currentSize += file.length + openCostInBytes currentFiles += file } closePartition() new FileScanRDD(fsRelation.sparkSession, readFile, partitions) 

2. 使用 ParquetInputSplit 构造 reader:

ParquetFileFormat#buildReaderWithPartitionValues 实现中, 会使用 split 来初始化 reader, 并且根据配置可以把 reader 分为否是 vectorized 的:

  • vectorizedReader.initialize(split, hadoopAttemptContext)
  • reader.initialize(split, hadoopAttemptContext)

关于 步骤2 在画外中还有更详细的代码, 但与本文的主流程关系不大, 这里先不表.

3. 划分 parquet 的 row groups 到不同的 partitions 中去

在 步骤1 中根据文件大小均分了一些 partitions, 但不是所有这些 partitions 最后都会有数据.

接回 步骤2 中的 init, 在 SpecificParquetRecordReaderBase#initialize 中, 会在 readFooter 的时候传入一个 RangeMetadataFilter, 这个 filter 的range 是根据你的 split 的边界来的, 最后会用这个 range 来划定 row group 的归属:

public void initialize(InputSplit inputSplit, TaskAttemptContext taskAttemptContext) throws IOException, InterruptedException { ... footer = readFooter(configuration, file, range(inputSplit.getStart(), inputSplit.getEnd())); ... } 

parquet 的ParquetFileReader#readFooter方法会用到ParquetMetadataConverter#converter.readParquetMetadata(f, filter);, 这个readParquetMetadata对于RangeMetadataFilter的处理是:

@Override public FileMetaData visit(RangeMetadataFilter filter) throws IOException { return filterFileMetaDataByMidpoint(readFileMetaData(from), filter); } 

终于到了最关键的切分的地方, 最关键的就是这一段, 谁拥有这个 row group的中点, 谁就可以处理这个 row group.

现在假设我们有一个40m 的文件, 只有一个 row group, 10m 一分, 那么将会有4个 partitions, 但是只有一个 partition 会占有这个 row group 的中点, 所以也只有这一个 partition 会有数据.

long midPoint = startIndex + totalSize / 2; if (filter.contains(midPoint)) { newRowGroups.add(rowGroup); } 

完整代码如下:

static FileMetaData filterFileMetaDataByMidpoint(FileMetaData metaData, RangeMetadataFilter filter) { List<RowGroup> rowGroups = metaData.getRow_groups(); List<RowGroup> newRowGroups = new ArrayList<RowGroup>(); for (RowGroup rowGroup : rowGroups) { long totalSize = 0; long startIndex = getOffset(rowGroup.getColumns().get(0)); for (ColumnChunk col : rowGroup.getColumns()) { totalSize += col.getMeta_data().getTotal_compressed_size(); } long midPoint = startIndex + totalSize / 2; if (filter.contains(midPoint)) { newRowGroups.add(rowGroup); } } metaData.setRow_groups(newRowGroups); return metaData; } 

画外:

步骤2 中的代码其实是 spark 正儿八经如何读文件的代码, 最后返回一个FileScanRDD, 也很值得顺路看一下, 完整代码如下:

 (file: PartitionedFile) => { assert(file.partitionValues.numFields == partitionSchema.size) val fileSplit = new FileSplit(new Path(new URI(file.filePath)), file.start, file.length, Array.empty) val split = new org.apache.parquet.hadoop.ParquetInputSplit( fileSplit.getPath, fileSplit.getStart, fileSplit.getStart + fileSplit.getLength, fileSplit.getLength, fileSplit.getLocations, null) val attemptId = new TaskAttemptID(new TaskID(new JobID(), TaskType.MAP, 0), 0) val hadoopAttemptContext = new TaskAttemptContextImpl(broadcastedHadoopConf.value.value, attemptId) // Try to push down filters when filter push-down is enabled. // Notice: This push-down is RowGroups level, not individual records. if (pushed.isDefined) { ParquetInputFormat.setFilterPredicate(hadoopAttemptContext.getConfiguration, pushed.get) } val parquetReader = if (enableVectorizedReader) { val vectorizedReader = new VectorizedParquetRecordReader() vectorizedReader.initialize(split, hadoopAttemptContext) logDebug(s"Appending $partitionSchema ${file.partitionValues}") vectorizedReader.initBatch(partitionSchema, file.partitionValues) if (returningBatch) { vectorizedReader.enableReturningBatches() } vectorizedReader } else { logDebug(s"Falling back to parquet-mr") // ParquetRecordReader returns UnsafeRow val reader = pushed match { case Some(filter) => new ParquetRecordReader[UnsafeRow]( new ParquetReadSupport, FilterCompat.get(filter, null)) case _ => new ParquetRecordReader[UnsafeRow](new ParquetReadSupport) } reader.initialize(split, hadoopAttemptContext) reader } val iter = new RecordReaderIterator(parquetReader) Option(TaskContext.get()).foreach(_.addTaskCompletionListener(_ => iter.close())) // UnsafeRowParquetRecordReader appends the columns internally to avoid another copy. if (parquetReader.isInstanceOf[VectorizedParquetRecordReader] && enableVectorizedReader) { iter.asInstanceOf[Iterator[InternalRow]] } else { val fullSchema = requiredSchema.toAttributes ++ partitionSchema.toAttributes val joinedRow = new JoinedRow() val appendPartitionColumns = GenerateUnsafeProjection.generate(fullSchema, fullSchema) // This is a horrible erasure hack... if we type the iterator above, then it actually check // the type in next() and we get a class cast exception. If we make that function return // Object, then we can defer the cast until later! if (partitionSchema.length == 0) { // There is no partition columns iter.asInstanceOf[Iterator[InternalRow]] } else { iter.asInstanceOf[Iterator[InternalRow]] .map(d => appendPartitionColumns(joinedRow(d, file.partitionValues))) } } } 

这个返回的(PartitionedFile) => Iterator[InternalRow] , 是在FileSourceScanExec#inputRDD用的

private lazy val inputRDD: RDD[InternalRow] = { val readFile: (PartitionedFile) => Iterator[InternalRow] = relation.fileFormat.buildReaderWithPartitionValues( sparkSession = relation.sparkSession, dataSchema = relation.dataSchema, partitionSchema = relation.partitionSchema, requiredSchema = requiredSchema, filters = pushedDownFilters, options = relation.options, hadoopConf = relation.sparkSession.sessionState.newHadoopConfWithOptions(relation.options)) relation.bucketSpec match { case Some(bucketing) if relation.sparkSession.sessionState.conf.bucketingEnabled => createBucketedReadRDD(bucketing, readFile, selectedPartitions, relation) case _ => createNonBucketedReadRDD(readFile, selectedPartitions, relation) } } 

FileScanRDD

class FileScanRDD( @transient private val sparkSession: SparkSession, readFunction: (PartitionedFile) => Iterator[InternalRow], @transient val filePartitions: Seq[FilePartition]) extends RDD[InternalRow](sparkSession.sparkContext, Nil) { override def compute(split: RDDPartition, context: TaskContext): Iterator[InternalRow] = { private[this] val files = split.asInstanceOf[FilePartition].files.toIterator private[this] var currentFile: PartitionedFile = null // 根据 currentFile = files.next() 来的, 具体实现我就不贴了 有兴趣的可以自己看下. ... readFunction(currentFile) ... } } 

结论

提升一个 parquet 中的 row group 中的行数阈值, 籍此提示 spark 并行度.

原文链接:https://my.oschina.net/tjt/blog/2250953
关注公众号

低调大师中文资讯倾力打造互联网数据资讯、行业资源、电子商务、移动互联网、网络营销平台。

持续更新报道IT业界、互联网、市场资讯、驱动更新,是最及时权威的产业资讯及硬件资讯报道平台。

转载内容版权归作者及来源网站所有,本站原创内容转载请注明来源。

文章评论

共有0条评论来说两句吧...

文章二维码

扫描即可查看该文章

点击排行

推荐阅读

最新文章