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Redis从入门到放弃系列(五) ZSet

日期:2019-05-26点击:443

Redis从入门到放弃系列(五) ZSet

本文例子基于:5.0.4 ZSet是Redis中一种比较复杂的数据结构,当存储大小在128之内且member得长度在64以下,其实现为zipList,超过为SkipList

忽然发现,到现在第五篇文章,还没有讲到zipList,然而前面例如Hash,List的篇章都涉及到了zipList的,后面会单独写一篇zipList的实现的~立Flag 请期待 【Redis从入门到放弃系列(外传) ZipList】

言归正传,首先让我们来看一下该如何在redis里面使用ZSet类型

//将一个或多个元素及其分数加入到有序集合里面 ZADD key [NX|XX] [CH] [INCR] score member [score member ...] 

代码示例:

//添加元素 >zadd store 1000 xiaoming 2000 xiaoqiang 3000 xiaoyue (integer) 3 //返回指定区间内的有序集合列表 > zrange store 0 -1 withscores 1) "xiaoming" 2) "1000" 3) "xiaoqiang" 4) "2000" 5) "xiaoyue" 6) "3000" //返回有序集合的数量 >zcard store (integer) 3 //查看处于1000到2000的存款的人数 >zcount store 1000 2000 (integer) 2 //查询处于1000到2000的存款的人群 > ZRANGEBYSCORE store 1000 2000 1) "xiaoming" 2) "xiaoqiang" //根据member查看当前排名 >zrank store xiaoming (integer) 0 

至此,redis zset的用法先告一段落.


源码解析

按照惯例,先来一波zset的数据结构

/* ZSETs use a specialized version of Skiplists */ typedef struct zskiplistNode { sds ele; double score; struct zskiplistNode *backward; struct zskiplistLevel { struct zskiplistNode *forward; unsigned long span; } level[]; } zskiplistNode; typedef struct zskiplist { struct zskiplistNode *header, *tail; unsigned long length; int level; } zskiplist; typedef struct zset { dict *dict; zskiplist *zsl; } zset; 

SkipList编码的有序集合底层是使用一个命为zset的结构体构成的,该结构体拥有两种数据类型,dict跟zskiplist。zskiplist按照score从小到大保存所有集合元素,dict则保存着member到score的映射关系,两个数据结构共用着相同元素的ele和score的内存。 zskiplist是一个双向链表,这是为了方便倒序方式获取一个范围内的元素。 关于跳跃链表的讲解请参考漫画算法:什么是跳跃表?

当我们在使用zadd key member的时候,redis是如何实现的呢?让我们来看一下源码:

/* Insert a new node in the skiplist. Assumes the element does not already * exist (up to the caller to enforce that). The skiplist takes ownership * of the passed SDS string 'ele'. */ zskiplistNode *zslInsert(zskiplist *zsl, double score, sds ele) { zskiplistNode *update[ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL], *x; unsigned int rank[ZSKIPLIST_MAXLEVEL]; int i, level; serverAssert(!isnan(score)); x = zsl->header; for (i = zsl->level-1; i >= 0; i--) { /* store rank that is crossed to reach the insert position */ rank[i] = i == (zsl->level-1) ? 0 : rank[i+1]; while (x->level[i].forward && (x->level[i].forward->score < score || (x->level[i].forward->score == score && sdscmp(x->level[i].forward->ele,ele) < 0))) { rank[i] += x->level[i].span; x = x->level[i].forward; } update[i] = x; } /* we assume the element is not already inside, since we allow duplicated * scores, reinserting the same element should never happen since the * caller of zslInsert() should test in the hash table if the element is * already inside or not. */ level = zslRandomLevel(); if (level > zsl->level) { for (i = zsl->level; i < level; i++) { rank[i] = 0; update[i] = zsl->header; update[i]->level[i].span = zsl->length; } zsl->level = level; } x = zslCreateNode(level,score,ele); for (i = 0; i < level; i++) { x->level[i].forward = update[i]->level[i].forward; update[i]->level[i].forward = x; /* update span covered by update[i] as x is inserted here */ x->level[i].span = update[i]->level[i].span - (rank[0] - rank[i]); update[i]->level[i].span = (rank[0] - rank[i]) + 1; } /* increment span for untouched levels */ for (i = level; i < zsl->level; i++) { update[i]->level[i].span++; } x->backward = (update[0] == zsl->header) ? NULL : update[0]; if (x->level[0].forward) x->level[0].forward->backward = x; else zsl->tail = x; zsl->length++; return x; } 

上面的流程我们用一张图来表示,如下所示:

当我们在使用zrank key member的时候,zset是怎么实现的呢?让我们一起来看一下源码

long zsetRank(robj *zobj, sds ele, int reverse) { unsigned long llen; unsigned long rank; llen = zsetLength(zobj); if (zobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_ZIPLIST) { //忽略掉 zipList查找过程 } else if (zobj->encoding == OBJ_ENCODING_SKIPLIST) { zset *zs = zobj->ptr; zskiplist *zsl = zs->zsl; dictEntry *de; double score; de = dictFind(zs->dict,ele); if (de != NULL) { score = *(double*)dictGetVal(de); rank = zslGetRank(zsl,score,ele); /* Existing elements always have a rank. */ serverAssert(rank != 0); if (reverse) return llen-rank; else return rank-1; } else { return -1; } } else { serverPanic("Unknown sorted set encoding"); } } /* Find the rank for an element by both score and key. * Returns 0 when the element cannot be found, rank otherwise. * Note that the rank is 1-based due to the span of zsl->header to the * first element. */ unsigned long zslGetRank(zskiplist *zsl, double score, sds ele) { zskiplistNode *x; unsigned long rank = 0; int i; x = zsl->header; for (i = zsl->level-1; i >= 0; i--) { while (x->level[i].forward && (x->level[i].forward->score < score || (x->level[i].forward->score == score && sdscmp(x->level[i].forward->ele,ele) <= 0))) { rank += x->level[i].span; x = x->level[i].forward; } /* x might be equal to zsl->header, so test if obj is non-NULL */ if (x->ele && sdscmp(x->ele,ele) == 0) { return rank; } } return 0; } 

其实查找的时候跟上面插入流程是有很多地方享受的,获取用户的排名是通过累加的span。

应用场景

1.排行榜

2.存储社交关系

3.滑动窗口应用

原文链接:https://my.oschina.net/u/4131421/blog/3054159
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