您现在的位置是:首页 > 文章详情

一种在块设备层模拟io hang的方法

日期:2019-06-18点击:323

前言

      io hang对于数据库/存储系统而言是致命的,因此,如何模拟一个较为真实的io hang环境,并对自己的系统代码进行测试显得尤为重要。io hang的模拟根据模拟的层次可以有很多方法,比较简单的有使用LD_PRELOAD对用户态函数进行偷梁换柱、或者使用Fuse实现用户态文件系统、稍微深一点的有使用systemtap工具hook内核系统调用,还有一些其他的内核错误注入工具等。这些io hang模拟方法虽然层次不同,但是它们其实并没有模拟到最底层,也就是不能模拟完整的io路径。通常,我们所谓的io hang,都是指最底层的物理设备(磁盘)出现问题,比如坏块过多导致整理gc延迟过大、或者磁盘直接出现硬件故障无法正常读写数据等。可以看到,我们需要模拟这种块设备的io hang,才能最接近真实的io hang场景。

      那么如何才能对一个块设备进行模拟,其实,模拟一个磁盘还是很简单的,就是写一个简单的块设备驱动就好了(参考LDD3中subll的例子很简单)。当然,如果懒得写,在linux内核中,我们也可以在源码/driver/block目录下找到一个块设备驱动,如果用过linux下的ramdisk设备(通常为/dev/ram0、/dev/ram1等等),那么就会对这个代码很熟悉。使用ramdisk类似的方式,不但可以完整的产生一个块设备,和真实磁盘相比,还不用关心具体设备协议(如nvme、ahci等),可以说非常方便了。

       这里直接使用ramdisk驱动,稍作修改。

块设备驱动

       首先,在内核中找到你机器上对应内核版本的代码,比如:https://elixir.bootlin.com/linux/v3.10/source/drivers/block/brd.c ,然后在文件中DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(io_hang_q)声明一个等待队列,因为我们主要测试write/read hang,因此这里我们直接在copy_to_brd(表示从用户态拷贝数据到ramdisk)和copy_from_brd(表示从ramdisk读数据到用户态)两个函数中分别加入如下代码,表示如果io_hang不为0,则在TASK_UNINTERRUPTIBLE状态睡眠io_hang秒(或者io_hang被修改为0)。

 if(io_hang){ pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read ,will hang %d seconds\n",io_hang); wait_event_timeout(io_hang_q, io_hang == 0,msecs_to_jiffies(io_hang * 1000)); pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read finish\n"); } 
 if(io_hang){ pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read ,will hang %d seconds\n",io_hang); wait_event_timeout(io_hang_q, io_hang == 0,msecs_to_jiffies(io_hang * 1000)); pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read finish\n"); } 

       同时,我们需要一个参数来控制ramdisk的磁盘行为(它一开始不能hang,因为我们需要格式化文件系统,写superblock等),这里只要加一个开关控制:

module_param(io_hang,int,S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH); MODULE_PARM_DESC(io_hang,"io hang switch");

       这里注意参数的权限设置,必须要能在用户态可以修改,后续我们将通过用户态sysfs对这个参数进行修改。

       这些改动做完之后,写一个简单的Makefile将其编译为内核模块(注:为了简明我把brd.c改为ramdisk.c):

obj-m := ramdisk.o SRC = /lib/modules/$(shell uname -r)/build ko: make -C $(SRC) M=$(PWD) modules clean: make -C $(SRC) M=$(PWD) clean

      然后直接make即可生成ramdisk.ko。 

      ramdisk.c代码如下:

#include <linux/init.h> #include <linux/module.h> #include <linux/moduleparam.h> #include <linux/major.h> #include <linux/blkdev.h> #include <linux/bio.h> #include <linux/highmem.h> #include <linux/mutex.h> #include <linux/radix-tree.h> #include <linux/fs.h> #include <linux/slab.h> #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_DAX #include <linux/pfn_t.h> #endif #include <asm/uaccess.h> #define SECTOR_SHIFT 9 #define PAGE_SECTORS_SHIFT (PAGE_SHIFT - SECTOR_SHIFT) #define PAGE_SECTORS (1 << PAGE_SECTORS_SHIFT) DECLARE_WAIT_QUEUE_HEAD(io_hang_q); static int io_hang = 0; /* * Each block ramdisk device has a radix_tree brd_pages of pages that stores * the pages containing the block device's contents. A brd page's ->index is * its offset in PAGE_SIZE units. This is similar to, but in no way connected * with, the kernel's pagecache or buffer cache (which sit above our block * device). */ struct brd_device { int brd_number; struct request_queue *brd_queue; struct gendisk *brd_disk; struct list_head brd_list; /* * Backing store of pages and lock to protect it. This is the contents * of the block device. */ spinlock_t brd_lock; struct radix_tree_root brd_pages; }; /* * Look up and return a brd's page for a given sector. */ static DEFINE_MUTEX(brd_mutex); static struct page *brd_lookup_page(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector) { pgoff_t idx; struct page *page; /* * The page lifetime is protected by the fact that we have opened the * device node -- brd pages will never be deleted under us, so we * don't need any further locking or refcounting. * * This is strictly true for the radix-tree nodes as well (ie. we * don't actually need the rcu_read_lock()), however that is not a * documented feature of the radix-tree API so it is better to be * safe here (we don't have total exclusion from radix tree updates * here, only deletes). */ rcu_read_lock(); idx = sector >> PAGE_SECTORS_SHIFT; /* sector to page index */ page = radix_tree_lookup(&brd->brd_pages, idx); rcu_read_unlock(); BUG_ON(page && page->index != idx); return page; } /* * Look up and return a brd's page for a given sector. * If one does not exist, allocate an empty page, and insert that. Then * return it. */ static struct page *brd_insert_page(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector) { pgoff_t idx; struct page *page; gfp_t gfp_flags; page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); if (page) return page; /* * Must use NOIO because we don't want to recurse back into the * block or filesystem layers from page reclaim. * * Cannot support DAX and highmem, because our ->direct_access * routine for DAX must return memory that is always addressable. * If DAX was reworked to use pfns and kmap throughout, this * restriction might be able to be lifted. */ gfp_flags = GFP_NOIO | __GFP_ZERO; #ifndef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_DAX gfp_flags |= __GFP_HIGHMEM; #endif page = alloc_page(gfp_flags); if (!page) return NULL; if (radix_tree_preload(GFP_NOIO)) { __free_page(page); return NULL; } spin_lock(&brd->brd_lock); idx = sector >> PAGE_SECTORS_SHIFT; page->index = idx; if (radix_tree_insert(&brd->brd_pages, idx, page)) { __free_page(page); page = radix_tree_lookup(&brd->brd_pages, idx); BUG_ON(!page); BUG_ON(page->index != idx); } spin_unlock(&brd->brd_lock); radix_tree_preload_end(); return page; } static void brd_free_page(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector) { struct page *page; pgoff_t idx; spin_lock(&brd->brd_lock); idx = sector >> PAGE_SECTORS_SHIFT; page = radix_tree_delete(&brd->brd_pages, idx); spin_unlock(&brd->brd_lock); if (page) __free_page(page); } static void brd_zero_page(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector) { struct page *page; page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); if (page) clear_highpage(page); } /* * Free all backing store pages and radix tree. This must only be called when * there are no other users of the device. */ #define FREE_BATCH 16 static void brd_free_pages(struct brd_device *brd) { unsigned long pos = 0; struct page *pages[FREE_BATCH]; int nr_pages; do { int i; nr_pages = radix_tree_gang_lookup(&brd->brd_pages, (void **)pages, pos, FREE_BATCH); for (i = 0; i < nr_pages; i++) { void *ret; BUG_ON(pages[i]->index < pos); pos = pages[i]->index; ret = radix_tree_delete(&brd->brd_pages, pos); BUG_ON(!ret || ret != pages[i]); __free_page(pages[i]); } pos++; /* * This assumes radix_tree_gang_lookup always returns as * many pages as possible. If the radix-tree code changes, * so will this have to. */ } while (nr_pages == FREE_BATCH); } /* * copy_to_brd_setup must be called before copy_to_brd. It may sleep. */ static int copy_to_brd_setup(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector, size_t n) { unsigned int offset = (sector & (PAGE_SECTORS-1)) << SECTOR_SHIFT; size_t copy; copy = min_t(size_t, n, PAGE_SIZE - offset); if (!brd_insert_page(brd, sector)) return -ENOSPC; if (copy < n) { sector += copy >> SECTOR_SHIFT; if (!brd_insert_page(brd, sector)) return -ENOSPC; } return 0; } static void discard_from_brd(struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector, size_t n) { while (n >= PAGE_SIZE) { /* * Don't want to actually discard pages here because * re-allocating the pages can result in writeback * deadlocks under heavy load. */ if (0) brd_free_page(brd, sector); else brd_zero_page(brd, sector); sector += PAGE_SIZE >> SECTOR_SHIFT; n -= PAGE_SIZE; } } /* * Copy n bytes from src to the brd starting at sector. Does not sleep. */ static void copy_to_brd(struct brd_device *brd, const void *src, sector_t sector, size_t n) { struct page *page; void *dst; unsigned int offset = (sector & (PAGE_SECTORS-1)) << SECTOR_SHIFT; size_t copy; /** * Simulation of IO hang * * per 1 second */ if(io_hang){ pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for write,will hang %d seconds\n",io_hang); wait_event_timeout(io_hang_q, io_hang == 0,msecs_to_jiffies(io_hang * 1000)); pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for write finish\n"); } copy = min_t(size_t, n, PAGE_SIZE - offset); page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); BUG_ON(!page); dst = kmap_atomic(page); memcpy(dst + offset, src, copy); kunmap_atomic(dst); if (copy < n) { src += copy; sector += copy >> SECTOR_SHIFT; copy = n - copy; page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); BUG_ON(!page); dst = kmap_atomic(page); memcpy(dst, src, copy); kunmap_atomic(dst); } } /* * Copy n bytes to dst from the brd starting at sector. Does not sleep. */ static void copy_from_brd(void *dst, struct brd_device *brd, sector_t sector, size_t n) { struct page *page; void *src; unsigned int offset = (sector & (PAGE_SECTORS-1)) << SECTOR_SHIFT; size_t copy; /** * Simulation of IO hang * * per 1 second */ if(io_hang){ pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read ,will hang %d seconds\n",io_hang); wait_event_timeout(io_hang_q, io_hang == 0,msecs_to_jiffies(io_hang * 1000)); pr_info("Simulation of IO hang for read finish\n"); } copy = min_t(size_t, n, PAGE_SIZE - offset); page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); if (page) { src = kmap_atomic(page); memcpy(dst, src + offset, copy); kunmap_atomic(src); } else memset(dst, 0, copy); if (copy < n) { dst += copy; sector += copy >> SECTOR_SHIFT; copy = n - copy; page = brd_lookup_page(brd, sector); if (page) { src = kmap_atomic(page); memcpy(dst, src, copy); kunmap_atomic(src); } else memset(dst, 0, copy); } } /* * Process a single bvec of a bio. */ static int brd_do_bvec(struct brd_device *brd, struct page *page, unsigned int len, unsigned int off, bool is_write, sector_t sector) { void *mem; int err = 0; if (is_write) { err = copy_to_brd_setup(brd, sector, len); if (err) goto out; } mem = kmap_atomic(page); if (!is_write) { copy_from_brd(mem + off, brd, sector, len); flush_dcache_page(page); } else { flush_dcache_page(page); copy_to_brd(brd, mem + off, sector, len); } kunmap_atomic(mem); out: return err; } static blk_qc_t brd_make_request(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio) { struct block_device *bdev = bio->bi_bdev; struct brd_device *brd = bdev->bd_disk->private_data; struct bio_vec bvec; sector_t sector; struct bvec_iter iter; sector = bio->bi_iter.bi_sector; if (bio_end_sector(bio) > get_capacity(bdev->bd_disk)) goto io_error; if (unlikely(bio_op(bio) == REQ_OP_DISCARD)) { if (sector & ((PAGE_SIZE >> SECTOR_SHIFT) - 1) || bio->bi_iter.bi_size & ~PAGE_MASK) goto io_error; discard_from_brd(brd, sector, bio->bi_iter.bi_size); goto out; } bio_for_each_segment(bvec, bio, iter) { unsigned int len = bvec.bv_len; int err; err = brd_do_bvec(brd, bvec.bv_page, len, bvec.bv_offset, op_is_write(bio_op(bio)), sector); if (err) goto io_error; sector += len >> SECTOR_SHIFT; } out: bio_endio(bio); return BLK_QC_T_NONE; io_error: bio_io_error(bio); return BLK_QC_T_NONE; } static int brd_rw_page(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t sector, struct page *page, bool is_write) { struct brd_device *brd = bdev->bd_disk->private_data; int err = brd_do_bvec(brd, page, PAGE_SIZE, 0, is_write, sector); page_endio(page, is_write, err); return err; } #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_DAX static long brd_direct_access(struct block_device *bdev, sector_t sector, void **kaddr, pfn_t *pfn, long size) { struct brd_device *brd = bdev->bd_disk->private_data; struct page *page; if (!brd) return -ENODEV; page = brd_insert_page(brd, sector); if (!page) return -ENOSPC; *kaddr = page_address(page); *pfn = page_to_pfn_t(page); return PAGE_SIZE; } #else #define brd_direct_access NULL #endif static int brd_ioctl(struct block_device *bdev, fmode_t mode, unsigned int cmd, unsigned long arg) { int error; struct brd_device *brd = bdev->bd_disk->private_data; if (cmd != BLKFLSBUF) return -ENOTTY; /* * ram device BLKFLSBUF has special semantics, we want to actually * release and destroy the ramdisk data. */ mutex_lock(&brd_mutex); mutex_lock(&bdev->bd_mutex); error = -EBUSY; if (bdev->bd_openers <= 1) { /* * Kill the cache first, so it isn't written back to the * device. * * Another thread might instantiate more buffercache here, * but there is not much we can do to close that race. */ kill_bdev(bdev); brd_free_pages(brd); error = 0; } mutex_unlock(&bdev->bd_mutex); mutex_unlock(&brd_mutex); return error; } static const struct block_device_operations brd_fops = { .owner = THIS_MODULE, .rw_page = brd_rw_page, .ioctl = brd_ioctl, .direct_access = brd_direct_access, }; /* * And now the modules code and kernel interface. */ static int rd_nr = CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_COUNT; module_param(rd_nr, int, S_IRUGO); MODULE_PARM_DESC(rd_nr, "Maximum number of brd devices"); int rd_size = CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_SIZE; module_param(rd_size, int, S_IRUGO); MODULE_PARM_DESC(rd_size, "Size of each RAM disk in kbytes."); static int max_part = 1; module_param(max_part, int, S_IRUGO); MODULE_PARM_DESC(max_part, "Num Minors to reserve between devices"); module_param(io_hang,int,S_IRUSR | S_IWUSR | S_IRGRP | S_IROTH); MODULE_PARM_DESC(io_hang,"io hang switch"); MODULE_LICENSE("GPL"); MODULE_ALIAS_BLOCKDEV_MAJOR(RAMDISK_MAJOR); MODULE_ALIAS("rd"); #ifndef MODULE /* Legacy boot options - nonmodular */ static int __init ramdisk_size(char *str) { rd_size = simple_strtol(str, NULL, 0); return 1; } __setup("ramdisk_size=", ramdisk_size); #endif /* * The device scheme is derived from loop.c. Keep them in synch where possible * (should share code eventually). */ static LIST_HEAD(brd_devices); static DEFINE_MUTEX(brd_devices_mutex); static struct brd_device *brd_alloc(int i) { struct brd_device *brd; struct gendisk *disk; brd = kzalloc(sizeof(*brd), GFP_KERNEL); if (!brd) goto out; brd->brd_number = i; spin_lock_init(&brd->brd_lock); INIT_RADIX_TREE(&brd->brd_pages, GFP_ATOMIC); brd->brd_queue = blk_alloc_queue(GFP_KERNEL); if (!brd->brd_queue) goto out_free_dev; blk_queue_make_request(brd->brd_queue, brd_make_request); blk_queue_max_hw_sectors(brd->brd_queue, 1024); blk_queue_bounce_limit(brd->brd_queue, BLK_BOUNCE_ANY); /* This is so fdisk will align partitions on 4k, because of * direct_access API needing 4k alignment, returning a PFN * (This is only a problem on very small devices <= 4M, * otherwise fdisk will align on 1M. Regardless this call * is harmless) */ blk_queue_physical_block_size(brd->brd_queue, PAGE_SIZE); brd->brd_queue->limits.discard_granularity = PAGE_SIZE; blk_queue_max_discard_sectors(brd->brd_queue, UINT_MAX); brd->brd_queue->limits.discard_zeroes_data = 1; queue_flag_set_unlocked(QUEUE_FLAG_DISCARD, brd->brd_queue); #ifdef CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_DAX queue_flag_set_unlocked(QUEUE_FLAG_DAX, brd->brd_queue); #endif disk = brd->brd_disk = alloc_disk(max_part); if (!disk) goto out_free_queue; disk->major = RAMDISK_MAJOR; disk->first_minor = i * max_part; disk->fops = &brd_fops; disk->private_data = brd; disk->queue = brd->brd_queue; disk->flags = GENHD_FL_EXT_DEVT; sprintf(disk->disk_name, "ramdisk%d", i); set_capacity(disk, rd_size * 2); return brd; out_free_queue: blk_cleanup_queue(brd->brd_queue); out_free_dev: kfree(brd); out: return NULL; } static void brd_free(struct brd_device *brd) { put_disk(brd->brd_disk); blk_cleanup_queue(brd->brd_queue); brd_free_pages(brd); kfree(brd); } static struct brd_device *brd_init_one(int i, bool *new) { struct brd_device *brd; *new = false; list_for_each_entry(brd, &brd_devices, brd_list) { if (brd->brd_number == i) goto out; } brd = brd_alloc(i); if (brd) { add_disk(brd->brd_disk); list_add_tail(&brd->brd_list, &brd_devices); } *new = true; out: return brd; } static void brd_del_one(struct brd_device *brd) { list_del(&brd->brd_list); del_gendisk(brd->brd_disk); brd_free(brd); } static struct kobject *brd_probe(dev_t dev, int *part, void *data) { struct brd_device *brd; struct kobject *kobj; bool new; mutex_lock(&brd_devices_mutex); brd = brd_init_one(MINOR(dev) / max_part, &new); kobj = brd ? get_disk(brd->brd_disk) : NULL; mutex_unlock(&brd_devices_mutex); if (new) *part = 0; return kobj; } static int __init brd_init(void) { struct brd_device *brd, *next; int i; /* * brd module now has a feature to instantiate underlying device * structure on-demand, provided that there is an access dev node. * * (1) if rd_nr is specified, create that many upfront. else * it defaults to CONFIG_BLK_DEV_RAM_COUNT * (2) User can further extend brd devices by create dev node themselves * and have kernel automatically instantiate actual device * on-demand. Example: * mknod /path/devnod_name b 1 X # 1 is the rd major * fdisk -l /path/devnod_name * If (X / max_part) was not already created it will be created * dynamically. */ if (register_blkdev(RAMDISK_MAJOR, "ramdisk")) return -EIO; if (unlikely(!max_part)) max_part = 1; for (i = 0; i < rd_nr; i++) { brd = brd_alloc(i); if (!brd) goto out_free; list_add_tail(&brd->brd_list, &brd_devices); } /* point of no return */ list_for_each_entry(brd, &brd_devices, brd_list) add_disk(brd->brd_disk); blk_register_region(MKDEV(RAMDISK_MAJOR, 0), 1UL << MINORBITS, THIS_MODULE, brd_probe, NULL, NULL); pr_info("brd: module loaded\n"); return 0; out_free: list_for_each_entry_safe(brd, next, &brd_devices, brd_list) { list_del(&brd->brd_list); brd_free(brd); } unregister_blkdev(RAMDISK_MAJOR, "ramdisk"); pr_info("brd: module NOT loaded !!!\n"); return -ENOMEM; } static void __exit brd_exit(void) { struct brd_device *brd, *next; list_for_each_entry_safe(brd, next, &brd_devices, brd_list) brd_del_one(brd); blk_unregister_region(MKDEV(RAMDISK_MAJOR, 0), 1UL << MINORBITS); unregister_blkdev(RAMDISK_MAJOR, "ramdisk"); pr_info("brd: module unloaded\n"); } module_init(brd_init); module_exit(brd_exit);

格式化、挂载

      上面我们实现了一个块设备驱动,并编译出来一个ramdisk.ko,现在可以注册这个块设备驱动:

sudo insmod ramdisk.ko

       可以看到/dev下多出来很多ramdisk设备,这些都是块设备,你可以把它当做一个真实的磁盘,只是这些磁盘都是memory backend。

       这里我使用ramdisk0做测试,首先对其格式化:

mkfs -t ext4 /dev/ramdisk0

        然后将其挂载到一个目录(选一个测试目录,比如io_hang_test)

sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/ramdisk0 /mnt/io_hang_test

        挂载之后可以运行mount命令看下挂载效果(最后一行)。

控制

      好了,现在/mnt/io_hang_test目录对应的就是我们的ramdisk0,所有在/mnt/io_hang_test目录下进行的io操作,都会经过ext4文件系统后转为对ramdisk0的读写操作,可以直接在上面创建一个文件试一试,只是这些文件是在内存里,重启后就丢失了。

      如果前面一切正常,则可以开始模拟io hang。还记得之前那个内核参数io_hang,它目前还是0,因为不会io hang,现在来修改它:

sudo bash -c " echo 10 > /sys/module/ramdisk/parameters/io_hang"

      这条命令会修改内核参数io_hang,将其值改为10,这样的话下一次读写的时候,ramdisk驱动会对每一次的read/write hang 10 秒钟(不精确)。如果想关闭io hang,执行:

sudo bash -c " echo 0 > /sys/module/ramdisk/parameters/io_hang"

测试   

      为了测试read和write,我这里写一个简单的测试代码,测试read和write,同时,为了避开page cache的影响和使用同步io,使用O_DIRECT和O_SYNC方式open。

#define _GNU_SOURCE #include <unistd.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/stat.h> #include <fcntl.h> #include <stdlib.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <string.h> #include <sys/mman.h> #define BUF_SIZE 1024 int main(){ int fd,size,len; int ret = 0; char *write_buf,*read_buf; ret = posix_memalign((void **)&write_buf, 512, BUF_SIZE); if (ret) { perror("posix_memalign:"); exit(1); } ret = posix_memalign((void **)&read_buf, 512, BUF_SIZE); if (ret) { perror("posix_memalign:"); exit(1); } strcpy(write_buf,"direct osync mode"); len = strlen("direct osync mode"); if ((fd = open("hello.c", O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_RDWR | O_DIRECT | O_SYNC,0666 ))<0) { perror("open:"); exit(1); } if ((size = write(fd, write_buf, BUF_SIZE)) < 0){ perror("write:"); exit(1); } lseek(fd, 0, SEEK_SET ); if ((size = read( fd, read_buf, BUF_SIZE))<0) { perror("read:"); exit(1); } if(strncmp(read_buf,write_buf,len) != 0){ perror("strncmp:"); exit(1); } if (close(fd) < 0 ) { perror("close:"); exit(1); } }

       假设测试代码为test.c,则为了测试方便可以写一个简单的shell:

#!/bin/sh mkdir io_hang_test gcc -o test test.c sudo umount io_hang_test sudo rmmod ramdisk.ko make sudo insmod ramdisk.ko sudo mkfs -t ext4 /dev/ramdisk0 sudo mount -t ext4 /dev/ramdisk0 io_hang_test sudo cp test io_hang_test/

     然后在io_hang_test目录下sudo ./test,然后看test进程处于D状态。

     同时sudo tail -f  /var/log/kern.log看下内核的持续输出。

总结

      本文只是提供了一种较为简单、在块设备层模拟io hang的方法。好处是不依赖真实磁盘设备、不会影响系统真实磁盘的读写(磁盘大小可自定义),只有处于测试挂载点的读写才会hang,并且umount之后自动清理测试文件,没有垃圾。在此基础上,还可以定制驱动扩展自己的io hang策略(本文只阐述了一种简单的延时hang策略),控制性很强。

      这里之所以不使用自己写块设备驱动,是因为内核版本很多,这样在调试不同内核版本时需要移植,如果直接使用ramdisk,那么内核中不同版本下都直接有相应的源码(3.x和5.x差别还是很大的),稍微加一下自己的代码就可以编译使用。非常方便。

      如果非要自己写一个简单一点的ramdisk,也可以参考下面的代码(参考LDD,修改支持blk_mq):

#include <linux/module.h> #include <linux/moduleparam.h> #include <linux/init.h> #include <linux/sched.h> #include <linux/kernel.h> /* printk() */ #include <linux/slab.h> /* kmalloc() */ #include <linux/fs.h> /* everything... */ #include <linux/errno.h> /* error codes */ #include <linux/types.h> /* size_t */ #include <linux/fcntl.h> /* O_ACCMODE */ #include <linux/hdreg.h> /* HDIO_GETGEO */ #include <linux/kdev_t.h> #include <linux/vmalloc.h> #include <linux/genhd.h> #include <linux/blk-mq.h> #include <linux/buffer_head.h> #include <linux/bio.h> #ifndef BLK_STS_OK typedef int blk_status_t; #define BLK_STS_OK 0 #define OLDER_KERNEL 1 #endif #ifndef BLK_STS_IOERR #define BLK_STS_IOERR 10 #endif #ifndef SECTOR_SHIFT #define SECTOR_SHIFT 9 #endif #define size_to_sectors(size) ((size) >> SECTOR_SHIFT) #define sectors_to_size(size) ((size) << SECTOR_SHIFT) MODULE_LICENSE("Dual BSD/GPL"); static int sbull_major; module_param(sbull_major, int, 0); static int logical_block_size = 512; module_param(logical_block_size, int, 0); static char* disk_size = "256M"; module_param(disk_size, charp, 0); static int ndevices = 1; module_param(ndevices, int, 0); static bool debug = false; module_param(debug, bool, false); /* * The different "request modes" we can use. */ enum { RM_SIMPLE = 0, /* The extra-simple request function */ RM_FULL = 1, /* The full-blown version */ RM_NOQUEUE = 2, /* Use make_request */ }; /* * Minor number and partition management. */ #define SBULL_MINORS 16 /* * We can tweak our hardware sector size, but the kernel talks to us * in terms of small sectors, always. */ #define KERNEL_SECTOR_SIZE 512 /* * The internal representation of our device. */ struct sbull_dev { int size; /* Device size in sectors */ u8 *data; /* The data array */ spinlock_t lock; /* For mutual exclusion */ struct request_queue *queue; /* The device request queue */ struct gendisk *gd; /* The gendisk structure */ struct blk_mq_tag_set tag_set; }; static struct sbull_dev *Devices; /* Handle an I/O request */ static blk_status_t sbull_transfer(struct sbull_dev *dev, unsigned long sector, unsigned long nsect, char *buffer, int op) { unsigned long offset = sectors_to_size(sector); unsigned long nbytes = sectors_to_size(nsect); if ((offset + nbytes) > dev->size) { pr_notice("Beyond-end write (%ld %ld)\n", offset, nbytes); return BLK_STS_IOERR; } if (debug) pr_info("%s: %s, sector: %ld, nsectors: %ld, offset: %ld," " nbytes: %ld", dev->gd->disk_name, op == REQ_OP_WRITE ? "WRITE" : "READ", sector, nsect, offset, nbytes); /* will be only REQ_OP_READ or REQ_OP_WRITE */ if (op == REQ_OP_WRITE) memcpy(dev->data + offset, buffer, nbytes); else memcpy(buffer, dev->data + offset, nbytes); return BLK_STS_OK; } static blk_status_t sbull_queue_rq(struct blk_mq_hw_ctx *hctx, const struct blk_mq_queue_data *bd) { struct request *req = bd->rq; struct sbull_dev *dev = req->rq_disk->private_data; int op = req_op(req); blk_status_t ret; blk_mq_start_request(req); spin_lock(&dev->lock); if (op != REQ_OP_READ && op != REQ_OP_WRITE) { pr_notice("Skip non-fs request\n"); blk_mq_end_request(req, BLK_STS_IOERR); spin_unlock(&dev->lock); return BLK_STS_IOERR; } ret = sbull_transfer(dev, blk_rq_pos(req), blk_rq_cur_sectors(req), bio_data(req->bio), op); blk_mq_end_request(req, ret); spin_unlock(&dev->lock); return ret; } /* * The device operations structure. */ static const struct block_device_operations sbull_ops = { .owner = THIS_MODULE, }; static const struct blk_mq_ops sbull_mq_ops = { .queue_rq = sbull_queue_rq, }; static struct request_queue *create_req_queue(struct blk_mq_tag_set *set) { struct request_queue *q; #ifndef OLDER_KERNEL q = blk_mq_init_sq_queue(set, &sbull_mq_ops, 2, BLK_MQ_F_SHOULD_MERGE | BLK_MQ_F_BLOCKING); #else int ret; memset(set, 0, sizeof(*set)); set->ops = &sbull_mq_ops; set->nr_hw_queues = 1; /*set->nr_maps = 1;*/ set->queue_depth = 2; set->numa_node = NUMA_NO_NODE; set->flags = BLK_MQ_F_SHOULD_MERGE | BLK_MQ_F_BLOCKING; ret = blk_mq_alloc_tag_set(set); if (ret) return ERR_PTR(ret); q = blk_mq_init_queue(set); if (IS_ERR(q)) { blk_mq_free_tag_set(set); return q; } #endif return q; } /* * Set up our internal device. */ static void setup_device(struct sbull_dev *dev, int which) { long long sbull_size = memparse(disk_size, NULL); memset(dev, 0, sizeof(struct sbull_dev)); dev->size = sbull_size; dev->data = vzalloc(dev->size); if (dev->data == NULL) { pr_notice("vmalloc failure.\n"); return; } spin_lock_init(&dev->lock); dev->queue = create_req_queue(&dev->tag_set); if (IS_ERR(dev->queue)) goto out_vfree; blk_queue_logical_block_size(dev->queue, logical_block_size); dev->queue->queuedata = dev; /* * And the gendisk structure. */ dev->gd = alloc_disk(SBULL_MINORS); if (!dev->gd) { pr_notice("alloc_disk failure\n"); goto out_vfree; } dev->gd->major = sbull_major; dev->gd->first_minor = which*SBULL_MINORS; dev->gd->fops = &sbull_ops; dev->gd->queue = dev->queue; dev->gd->private_data = dev; snprintf(dev->gd->disk_name, 32, "myramdisk%c", which + 'a'); set_capacity(dev->gd, size_to_sectors(sbull_size)); add_disk(dev->gd); return; out_vfree: if (dev->data) vfree(dev->data); } static int __init sbull_init(void) { int i; /* * Get registered. */ sbull_major = register_blkdev(sbull_major, "myramdisk"); if (sbull_major <= 0) { pr_warn("myramdisk: unable to get major number\n"); return -EBUSY; } /* * Allocate the device array, and initialize each one. */ Devices = kmalloc(ndevices * sizeof(struct sbull_dev), GFP_KERNEL); if (Devices == NULL) goto out_unregister; for (i = 0; i < ndevices; i++) setup_device(Devices + i, i); return 0; out_unregister: unregister_blkdev(sbull_major, "myramdisk"); return -ENOMEM; } static void sbull_exit(void) { int i; for (i = 0; i < ndevices; i++) { struct sbull_dev *dev = Devices + i; if (dev->gd) { del_gendisk(dev->gd); put_disk(dev->gd); } if (dev->queue) blk_cleanup_queue(dev->queue); if (dev->data) vfree(dev->data); } unregister_blkdev(sbull_major, "myramdisk"); kfree(Devices); } module_init(sbull_init); module_exit(sbull_exit);

 

原文链接:https://my.oschina.net/fileoptions/blog/3063465
关注公众号

低调大师中文资讯倾力打造互联网数据资讯、行业资源、电子商务、移动互联网、网络营销平台。

持续更新报道IT业界、互联网、市场资讯、驱动更新,是最及时权威的产业资讯及硬件资讯报道平台。

转载内容版权归作者及来源网站所有,本站原创内容转载请注明来源。

文章评论

共有0条评论来说两句吧...

文章二维码

扫描即可查看该文章

点击排行

推荐阅读

最新文章